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Scannerl : Modular Distributed Fingerprinting Engine

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Scannerl

License: GPL v3

Scannerl is a modular distributed fingerprinting engine implemented by Kudelski Security. Scannerl can fingerprint thousands of targets on a single host, but can just as easily be distributed across multiple hosts. Scannerl is to fingerprinting what zmap is to port scanning.

Scannerl works on Debian/Ubuntu/Arch (but will probably work on other distributions as well). It uses a master/slave architecture where the master node will distribute the work (host(s) to fingerprint) to its slaves (local or remote). The entire deployment is transparent to the user.

Why use Scannerl

When using conventional fingerprinting tools for large-scale analysis, security researchers will often hit two limitations: first, these tools are typically built for scanning comparatively few hosts at a time and are inappropriate for large ranges of IP addresses. Second, if large range of IP addresses protected by IPS devices are being fingerprinted, the probability of being blacklisted is higher what could lead to an incomplete set of information. Scannerl is designed to circumvent these limitations, not only by providing the ability to fingerprint multiple hosts simultaneously, but also by distributing the load across an arbitrary number of hosts. Scannerl also makes the distribution of these tasks completely transparent, which makes setup and maintenance of large-scale fingerprinting projects trivial; this allows to focus on the analyses rather than the herculean task of managing and distributing fingerprinting processes by hand. In addition to the speed factor, scannerl has been designed to allow to easily set up specific fingerprinting analyses in a few lines of code. Not only is the creation of a fingerprinting cluster easy to set up, but it can be tweaked by adding fine-tuned scans to your fingerprinting campaigns.

It is the fastest tool to perform large scale fingerprinting campaigns.


Table of Contents

Installation

First install Erlang (at least v.18) by choosing the right packaging for your platform: Erlang downloads

Install the required packages:

# on debian
$ sudo apt install erlang erlang-src rebar

# on arch
$ sudo pacman -S erlang-nox rebar

Build

Here are the steps to build scannerl:

$ git clone https://github.com/kudelskisecurity/scannerl.git
$ cd scannerl
$ ./build.sh

Get the usage by running

$ ./scannerl -h

Distributed setup

Two types of nodes are needed to perform a distributed scan:

  • Master node: this is where scannerl’s binary is run
  • Slave node(s): this is where scannerl will connect to distribute all its work

The master node needs to have scannerl installed and compiled while the slave node(s) only needs Erlang to be installed. The entire setup is transparent and done automatically by the master node.

Requirements for a distributed scan:

  • All hosts have the same version of Erlang installed
  • All hosts are able to connect to each other using SSH public key
  • All hosts’ names resolve (use /etc/hosts if no proper DNS is setup)
  • All hosts have the same Erlang security cookie
  • All hosts must allow connection to Erlang EPMD port (TCP/4369)
  • All hosts have the following range of ports opened: TCP/11100 to TCP/11100 + number-of-slaves

Usage

$ ./scannerl -h
   ____   ____    _    _   _ _   _ _____ ____  _
  / ___| / ___|  / \  | \ | | \ | | ____|  _ \| |
  \___ \| |     / _ \ |  \| |  \| |  _| | |_) | |
   ___) | |___ / ___ \| |\  | |\  | |___|  _ <| |___
  |____/ \____/_/   \_\_| \_|_| \_|_____|_| \_\_____|


USAGE
  scannerl MODULE TARGETS [NODES] [OPTIONS]

  MODULE:
    -m <mod> --module <mod>
      mod: the fingerprinting module to use.
           arguments are separated with a colon.

  TARGETS:
    -f <target> --target <target>
      target: a list of target separated by a comma.
    -F <path> --target-file <path>
      path: the path of the file containing one target per line.
    -d <domain> --domain <domain>
      domain: a list of domains separated by a comma.
    -D <path> --domain-file <path>
      path: the path of the file containing one domain per line.

  NODES:
    -s <node> --slave <node>
      node: a list of node (hostnames not IPs) separated by a comma.
    -S <path> --slave-file <path>
      path: the path of the file containing one node per line.
            a node can also be supplied with a multiplier (<node>*<nb>).

  OPTIONS:
    -o <mod> --output <mod>     comma separated list of output module(s) to use.
    -p <port> --port <port>     the port to fingerprint.
    -t <sec> --timeout <sec>    the fingerprinting process timeout.
    -j <nb> --max-pkt <nb>      max pkt to receive (int or "infinity").
    -r <nb> --retry <nb>        retry counter (default: 0).
    -c <cidr> --prefix <cidr>   sub-divide range with prefix > cidr (default: 24).
    -M <port> --message <port>  port to listen for message (default: 57005).
    -P <nb> --process <nb>      max simultaneous process per node (default: 28232).
    -Q <nb> --queue <nb>        max nb unprocessed results in queue (default: infinity).
    -C <path> --config <path>   read arguments from file, one per line.
    -O <mode> --outmode <mode>  0: on Master, 1: on slave, >1: on broker (default: 0).
    -v <val> --verbose <val>    be verbose (0 <= int <= 255).
    -l --list-modules           list available fp/out modules.
    -V --list-debug             list available debug options.
    -X --priv-ports             Use only source port between 1 and 1024.
    -N --nosafe                 keep going even if some slaves fail to start.
    -w --www                    DNS will try for www.<domain>.
    -b --progress               show progress.
    -x --dryrun                 dry run.

Standalone usage

Scannerl can be used on the local host without any other host. However, it will still create a slave node on the same host it is run from. Therefore, the requirements described in Distributed setup must also be met.

A quick way to do this is to make sure your host is able to resolve itself with

grep -q "127.0.1.1\s*`hostname`" /etc/hosts || echo "127.0.1.1 `hostname`" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts

and create an SSH key (if not yet present) and add it to the authorized_keys (you need an SSH server running):

cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys

The following example runs an HTTP banner grabing on google.com from localhost

./scannerl -m httpbg -d google.com

Distributed usage

In order to perform a distributed scan, one need to pre-setup the hosts that will be used by scannerl to distribute the work. See Distributed setup for more information.

Scannerl expects a list of slaves to use (provided by the -s or -S switches).

./scannerl -m httpbg -d google.com -s host1,host2,host3

List available modules

Scannerl will list the available modules (output modules as well as fingerprinting modules) with the -l switch:

$ ./scannerl -l

Fingerprinting modules available
================================

httpbg             TCP/80: HTTP Server header identification
                     - Arg1: [true|false] follow redirection [Default:false]

Output modules available
========================

file               output to file
                     - Arg1: File path
stdout             output to stdout

Modules arguments

Arguments can be provided to modules with a colon. For example for the file output module:

./scannerl -m httpbg -d google.com -o file:/tmp/result

Result format

The result returned by scannerl to the output modules has the following form:

{module, target, port, result}

Where

  • module: the module used (Erlang atom)
  • target: IP or hostname (string or IPv4 address)
  • port: the port (integer)
  • result: see below

The result part is of the form:

{{status, type},Value}

Where {status, type} is one of the following tuples:

  • {ok, result}: fingerprinting the target succeeded
  • {error, up}: fingerprinting didn’t succeed but the target responded
  • {error, unknown}: fingerprinting failed

Value is the returned value – it is either an atom or a list of element

Extending Scannerl

Scannerl has been designed and implemented with modularity in mind. It is easy to add new modules to it:

  • Fingerprinting module: to query a specific protocol or service. As an example, the fp_httpbg.erl module allows to retrieve the server entry in the HTTP response.
  • Output module: to output to a specific database/filesystem or output the result in a specific format. For example, the out_file.erl and out_stdout.erl modules allow respectively to output to a file or to stdout (default behavior if not specified).

To add new modules, simply follow the behavior (fp_module.erl for fingerprinting modules and out_behavior.erl for output module) and implement your modules. Push them to their respective folders and insert a entries in the SLMODULES list in the scannerl.erl file so that they get compiled. Scannerl needs to be re-built if new modules are being added.

Make sure new modules get listed (using the -l switch) and then use them with their respective switch (-m for fingerprinting module and -o for output modules).

Contributing

Feel free to open an issue or a PR.

License and Copyright

Copyright(c) 2017 Nagravision SA.

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

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